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Definitions

These are legal definitions as found in South African law:

Rape: “All forms of sexual penetration without consent, irrespective of gender.” It is a crime which needs to be reported to the police.

Sexual penetration: “…[A]ny act which causes penetration to any extent whatsoever by

(a) the genital organs of one person into or beyond the genital organs, anus, or mouth of another person;
(b) any other part of the body of one person or, any object, including any part of the body of an animal, into or beyond the genital organs or anus of another person; or
(c) the genital organs of an animal, into or beyond the mouth of another person.”

Sexual abuse: “Any conduct that abuses, humiliates, degrades or otherwise violates the sexual integrity of the complainant*.”

Sexual assault: “If a person ‘’…unlawfully and intentionally sexually violates a complainant*’’ without their consent, this includes ‘’…inspir[ing] the belief in a complainant*… that [they] will be sexually violated.”

Sexual harassment:

“a) unwelcome sexual attention from a person who knows or ought reasonably to know that such attention is unwelcome;
(b) unwelcome explicit or implicit behaviour, suggestions, messages or remarks of a sexual nature that have the effect of offending, intimidating or humiliating the complainant or a related person in circumstances, which a reasonable person having regard to all the circumstances would have anticipated that the complainant or related person would be offended, humiliated or intimidated;
(c) implied or expressed promise of reward for complying with a sexually oriented request; or
(d) implied or expressed threat of reprisal or actual reprisal for refusal to comply with a sexually oriented request.”

*Complainant means the survivor.